Chemical testing and analysis are essential for understanding elements and materials’ quality composition in goods, industrial processes, and production. Effective chemical testing requires specialist industry knowledge and competence in using the most appropriate methodology.
Yet, let’s understand the top 10 Chemical testing used in the industrial sector –
10) Coating thickness –
Elcometer (also known as paint meters) measure the thickness of dry films. Due to the importance of the coating process, quality and cost, the dry film thickness is probably the most difficult measurement in the coatings industry. In addition to determining how long a coating will last, the evaluation’s appearance and performance of the product check its compliance with international standards. Compared to other conventional test methods that use a metallurgical microscope, this method is cost-effective.
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroscopic analysis technique determining the concentration of a particular element in a sample by atomizing the contents of the sample and measuring the absorbance of a wavelength specific to that specific element in the gaseous state. Many areas, including chemistry, pharmacology, and material analysis, employ AAS to identify the presence and quantity of a specific atom of interest, such as a dangerous metal atom-like lead. AAS can analyze more than 70 elements, primarily metals.
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a form of mass spectrometry in which an inductively coupled plasma ionizes the sample. It atomizes the material, resulting in atomic and tiny polyatomic ions that may be identified. It is well-known for its capacity to identify metals and various non-metals.ICP-MS outperforms atomic absorption spectroscopy in speed, accuracy, and sensitivity.
Turning a steel surface into iron phosphate is known as phosphating. This is often used as a corrosion prevention pre-treatment with another approach. Iron, zinc, or manganese crystals are commonly found in phosphate coating layers. Phosphating is a chemical procedure that forms barely soluble metal-phosphate layers on the base material to treat the surface of the steel. The resulting layers are porous, absorbent, and can be used as a conversion layer for powder coating without additional treatment. Hence being a form of coating it becomes crucial that the coating mass does not exceed certain limits. If the coating mass increases the desired limits it may lead to the wrong dimensions proposed for the application and may hinder the time and quality of the work to be done.
LECO analysis uses either the gas fusion method (Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen) or the combustion method to convert the elements in a sample into their oxidized state (Carbon and Sulfur). In Iron-based alloys, Copper-based alloys, Nickel based alloys, Titanium-based alloys, Cr-Co based alloys, and other alloys, the test identifies hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. LECO analysis is a valid method for detecting the concentration of components such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur within a metallic sample.
6) Purity of metals
Metals are chemically tested using qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative techniques are used to identify compounds and elements. In contrast, quantitative methods measure the amounts of different substances present and report on various characteristics of the resultant metal or alloy. For every manufacturer, obtaining the necessary mechanical, corrosion, and physical qualities is critical. Certain applications require highly pure metals without which the purpose remains unfulfilled. Pertaining to the criticalness of the application studying the purity of metal plays a vital role.
5) Rubber & Plastic identification
Chemical testing of rubber and plastic is necessary to guarantee that the material fits its intended purpose. With this test, polymers determine essential structural information such as molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, and branching information. Chemical analysis of a plastic or polymer material can be challenging. Still, it can yield vital information on the additives employed and other compounds present, which is helpful for understanding material performance.
The wet chemical analysis identifies and quantifies the required components contained in a liquid sample. It is separated into two types: a qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis identifies the parts, while quantitative analysis establishes the quantity. The analyte that is employed with chemical reagents to transform a dye proportionately, can be read visually or photometrically. Titration, distillation, spectrophotometry (UV/Vis/IR), colourimetry, filtration, drying, weighing, pH tests, and direct read using electrodes are some techniques used in wet chemical analysis. It can be more labour-intensive than other analysis methods as automation is restricted for some procedures.
The technique of energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is employed chiefly for qualitative material examination, although it can also provide semi-quantitative findings. SEM apparatus is typically paired with an EDS device to allow chemical analysis of features shown in the SEM display. In failure analysis scenarios where spot analysis is critical to reaching a reliable result, simultaneous SEM and EDS analysis are helpful.
The non-destructive analytical technique XRF (X-ray fluorescence) determines the elemental makeup of materials. By detecting the fluorescence (or secondary) X-ray released by a sample when the main X-ray source stimulates it, XRF analyzers may identify the chemistry of a sample. XRF spectroscopy is an ideal technology for qualitative and quantitative investigation of material composition because each element in a sample creates a set of distinctive fluorescent X-rays that is unique to that element.
In the metals processing sector, OES examines bolts, tubes, wires, rods, and plates. OES uses the visible spectrum and a portion of the ultraviolet spectrum. This ranges from 130 nanometers to roughly 800 nanometers in terms of wavelength. OES can analyze various elements in solid metal samples, from lithium to uranium. Across an extensive concentration the analysis range with low detection limits, high precision, and extremely high accuracy. The components and concentrations that OES analyzers detect may vary depending on the tested substance and the type of analyzer utilized.